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Venezuela

Venezuela (/ˌvɛnəˈzwlə/ ( listen) VEN-ə-ZWAYL; American Spanish: [beneˈswela]), officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental land and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea, whose capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km² (353,841 sq mi). The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan Government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km² (61,600 sq mi). For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km² (27,527 sq mi) of territorial waters, 22,224 km² (8,581 sq mi) in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km² (182,050 sq mi) of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km² (38,567of mi) continental shelf. This marine area borders those of thirteen States. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked 7th in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon Basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

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