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Ivan Pavlov- (1849-1936) Pavlov is most famous for Classical Conditioning. He was studying salivary response in dogs. He made a small incision on the side of each dogs mouth and attached a tube where the saliva will divert from inside of the animals mouth. The saliva was went into a container where it was measured. His purpose to collect the saliva was to see how the dogs naturally respond to food in its mouth. However, he found that dogs salivated even even before food was presented. Drops of saliva occurred when the animals herd footsteps, dishes rattling, spotted their food, or when they saw the attendant that fed them. Out of this he developed classical conditioning. The term Classical conditioning means a type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another. Pavlov used tones, buzzers, bells, lights, geometric shapes, electric shocks and metronomes during his conditioning experiments. During a typical experiment food powder was placed in the animal's mouth, causing salivation. Due to the fact that dogs do not need to learn to salivate to food, it is an unlearned response or what is known as Unconditioned Response(UR). Any stimulus that automatically causes an unconditioned response without prior learning is known as Unconditioned Stimulus (US). The Following are examples of unconditioned reflexes: Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Unconditioned Response(UR) 1. Food 1. Salivation 2. Loud Noise 2. Startle 3. Light in eye 3. Contraction Of pupil 4. Puff of air in eye 4. Eyeblink response Furthermore, Pavlov showed that the dogs can be conditioned to salivate to different stimuli's that were not associated with food. He began to pair a neutral stimulus prior to placing food powder into the dogs mouth. After pairing the neutral stimulus with the food for about 20 times or more,the tone alone would elicit salivation. Pavlov called the tone, a learned stimulus or Conditioned Stimulus(CS), and the salivation to the tone was the learned response or Conditioned Response(CR). Citation: Wood, S., Wood, E., & Boyd, D., (2006) Learning. Mastering the World Of Psychology. second edition.
Contributed by Ariee Flor