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Chronic granulomatous disease is characterized by the body's inability to fight off bacteria and/or fungus. This leads to infections (usually of the respiratory system). This is caused by the neutrophils (or mature white blood cells) not being able to produce hydrogen peroxide (it's not only for cleaning counters!). The only known cure thus far is from bone-marrow transplants, which help introduce healthy white blood cells. There are many variations of the disease that can be caused by genetic abnormalities or autosomal or sexual inheritance. These result in different proteins becoming missing or inactive in the cell, making the cell not work fully or at all.
Contributed by Jessica Kalmazu Stimely