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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. They maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons. In the central nervous system, glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous system glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells. They have four main functions: (1) To surround neurons and hold them in place (2) To supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons (3) To insulate one neuron from another (4) To destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons. They also play a role in neurotransmission and synaptic connections, and in physiological processes like breathing, .
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