Visual Encyclopedia

Journalism

Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that impacts society to at least some degree. The word applies to the occupation (professional or not), the methods of gathering information, and the organizing literary styles. Journalistic media include: print, television, radio, Internet, and, in the past, newsreels.

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Photojournalism: where photographic ethics disappear

We all know that writing, news, and journalism is inevitably biased. Try reading articles about the same event on the Times, Washington Post, and Fox News. It turns out, photojournalism also "twists" facts. Photos have been staged, misrepresented, and viewed out of context. In many ways, misleading photography is more harmful than biased written words, as humans react more heavily to visual stimuli. Technology has allowed alterations of photos to go undetected, compromising the credibility of photojournalism as well.

Contributed by Lucy Zhang

Andie Tucher, director of Columbia Journalism School's Ph.D. program, discusses what it means to be a journalist in a world where anyone can write and publish work online. A good analysis of what it means to be a journalist.

Contributed by Kael E Heath

1-Max number of sentences in a journalism paragraphs is three; two is favored. The min is one. 2-Quotes are in a paragraph by themselves. The only thing in a paragraph that is not in the quotations is the attribution. There are three sentences max in a quote. 3-When you are writing, you must put a transition paragraph between each quote paragraph. Two quotes in a row is called “stacking.” 4-Attribution: A person’s title/identifier/descriptor, first and last name, and “said.” Never use “says” or Mrs./Mr./Ms. “Said” goes after the name 98% of the time. It goes in front of the name when you have three or more identifiers. The identifiers go after the name and are set off by a comma. 7-Appositive: A descriptor or title that comes after the name and is set off by commas. In a quote, it is only used as attribution which always goes after the first sentence. When it’s NOT in a quote or at the end of a sentence, use two commas instead of a comma and period. 8-Attribution ALWAYS comes after the first sentence of a quote. 9-First mention: the first time a person’s name is used in the story. MUST include an identifier/descriptor/title. After first mention, use ONLY last name. In a story with multiple people with the same last name, use first names. 10-Inverted pyramid style is used in ALL stories: Lede (1-2 sentences max. Most important info first, which ALWAYS includes the 5W’s (Who, What, When, Where, Why) and 1H (How)), second Lede (info not included in the first paragraph), Quote, Transition (connects 2 parts of the story. Can stack transitions but NOT quotes.) 11-350 is the minimum number of words. News story runs 600-1,000 words. “Top Story” (at the top of the paper) is the longest story on the paper. Length depends on importance of story and the amount of info. 12-Most important info goes at the front of the sentence. 13-Spell out single-digit numbers. All others are numerals unless they start a sentence. NEVER spell out a year! Even when it starts a sentence! 14-When writing an address: House is a numeral, spell out street name. “22 Fifth Street” Unless double digits. “22 10th Street” 15-When using only a street name - have to spell out street, avenue, etc. 16-Money: use numeral and $ 17-Date and/or time: use numeral 18-Midnight is 12:00 am. Use noon and midnight. 19-If the title is in front of the name, abbreviate and capitalize if needed. Spell out if it comes after and do not capitalize it. 20-States/Months/Streets: Alone, spell out. Address: abbreviate and capitalize if needed (5 or fewer letters) 21-Lowercase titles that come after a name, capitalize when in front of a name: “general in the army”, “queen of England”, “Queen Elizabeth of England”, “Obama, president of the United States” 22-Percent is one word; % is only used in a table 23-Always use figures for weights and measurements (1 lb.); mm for millimeter only with film 25-Never abbreviate air force base 26-Spell out fractions 27-gelatin v. Jell-O, Xerox v. copy, Coke v. cola. Be mindful of brand names!

Contributed by Hannah Haugen

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