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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems.

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Contributed by Joseph Perry

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Contributed by Joseph Perry

Extensions of Mendelian Genetics 1. An organism that has the genotype AaBbDd is crossed with an organism that has the genotype AABbDd. Assume all genes are on separate sets of chromosomes (that is, they are not linked). a. What is the probability that any of the offspring will have the genotype AABBDD? (Hint: To get the answer, consider the six possible types of autosomal crosses. Determine the individual probabilities of getting AA offspring from the monohybrid cross. Then do the same to determine the probabilities of getting BB offspring and DD offspring. Multiply these probabilities together.) b. What is the probability that any of the offspring will have the genotype AaBbdd? 2. Consider the cross AaBbDdeeFf x AABBddEEFf. a. What is the probability that any offspring will have the genotype AaBBDdEeFF? b. What is the probability that any offspring will have the genotype AABBDDEEff? 3. In fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), the most common eye color is red. A mutation (or allele) of the gene for eye color produces white eyes. The gene is located on the X chromosome. a. What is the probability that a heterozygous red-eyed female fruit fly mated with a white-eyed male will produce any white-eyed offspring? b. What is the probability that the mating in part a will produce any white-eyed females? c. What is the probability that this mating will produce any white-eyed males? 4. A heterozygous brown-eyed human female who is a carrier of color blindness marries a blue-eyed male who is not color-blind. Color blindness is a sex-linked trait. Assume that eye color is an autosomal trait and that brown is dominant over blue. What is the probability that any of the offspring produced have the following traits? a. Brown eyes b. Blue eyes c. Color blindness d. Color-blind males e. Brown-eyed, color-blind males f. Blue-eyed, color-blind females g. What is the probability that any of the males will be color-blind? h. Why do males show sex-linked traits more often than females?

Contributed by Erin Koren

Genetics vocabulary: Match each commonly used genetics term with its appropriate definition or example. Terms Definitions and Examples __E__ heterozygous a. blue-eyed blonde mates with brown-eyed brunette __B__ homozygous b. BB or bb __G__ monohybrid cross c. not on sex chromosomes __C__ autosomal d. blue or brown eyes __H__ genotype e. Bb __D__ phenotype f. locus on a chromosome that codes for a given polypeptide __F__ gene g. blonde mates with brunette __I__ allele h. BB, Bb, or bb __A__ dihybrid cross i. variation of a gene

Contributed by Erin Koren

Genetics vocabulary: Match each commonly used genetics term with its appropriate definition or example. Terms Definitions and Examples _____ heterozygous a. blue-eyed blonde mates with brown-eyed brunette _____ homozygous b. BB or bb _____ monohybrid cross c. not on sex chromosomes _____ autosomal d. blue or brown eyes _____ genotype e. Bb _____ phenotype f. locus on a chromosome that codes for a given polypeptide _____ gene g. blonde mates with brunette _____ allele h. BB, Bb, or bb _____ dihybrid cross i. variation of a gene

Contributed by Erin Koren

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