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Frequency modulation synthesis

FM synthesis using 2 operators
A 220 Hz carrier tone fc modulated by a 440 Hz modulating tone fm, with various choices of frequency modulation index, β. The time domain signals are illustrated above, and the corresponding spectra are shown below (spectrum amplitudes in dB).
Waveforms for each β
Spectra for each β
In audio and music, frequency modulation synthesis (or FM synthesis) is a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform (such as a square, triangle, or sawtooth) is changed by modulating its frequency with a modulator frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone that can also be described as "gritty" if it is a thick and dark timbre. The frequency of an oscillator is altered or distorted, "in accordance with the amplitude of a modulating signal."

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FM Synthesis in action and demonstrated by the wonderful synthesizer, Sytrus! DAW is FL Studio.

Contributed by Carlos OkamiFanatic Amador

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