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-Lithium reduces the sensitivity of the postsynaptic norepinephrine receptor. - If the receptor is less sensitive, then the receptor is less likely to receive norepinephrine and less norepinephrine transfers throughout the body. -Lithium also increases uptake of norpinephrine into synaptosomes. -Synaptosomes are pinched off nerve endings that cannot release hormones such as norpinephrine. -Less norpinephrine reduces mania (Van Praag, 1977).
Contributed by Jessica Kalmazu Stimely
Bipolar disorder is a chemical imbalance which takes place in the brain. Since certain chemicals are off balance those who are bipolar are more perceptible to those emotions. The disorder can become easier to manage with a certain dosage of pills and consistent therapy sessions.
Contributed by Victoria Brice
There is a huge social stigma that is placed upon people with bipolar disorder. They are often ostracized because people do not understand that it is something that the person can't control. What people with the disorder should know is that it is something they should not be ashamed of and that there is help and resources out there to help them. For those who think that people with bipolar disorder are bad people, do some research.
Contributed by Mia Pino
"There are several types of bipolar disorder; all involve episodes of depression and mania to a degree. Bipolar disorder is a lifelong illness. Episodes of mania and depression eventually can occur again, if you don't get treatment. Many people sometimes continue to have symptoms, even after getting treatment for their bipolar disorder. Here are the types of bipolar disorder: Bipolar I disorder involves periods of severe mood episodes from mania to depression. Bipolar II disorder is a milder form of mood elevation, involving milder episodes of hypomania that alternate with periods of severe depression. Cyclothymic disorder describes periods of hypomania with brief periods of depression that are not as extensive or long-lasting as seen in full depressive episodes. Mixed bipolar episodes are periods that simultaneously involve the full symptoms of both a manic and a full depressive episode. It's marked by grandiose feelings with racing thoughts. At the same time, the person is irritable, angry, moody, and feeling bad. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder is characterized by four or more mood episodes that occur within a 12-month period. Episodes must last for some minimum number of days in order to be considered distinct episodes. Some people also experience changes in polarity from high to low or vice-versa within a single week, or even within a single day -- the full symptom profile that defines distinct, separate episodes may not be present (for example, the person may not have a decreased need for sleep), making such "ultra-rapid" cycling a more controversial phenomenon. Rapid cycling can occur at any time in the course of illness, although some researchers believe that it may be more common at later points in the lifetime duration of illness. Women appear more likely than men to have rapid cycling. A rapid-cycling pattern increases risk for severe depression and suicide attempts. Antidepressants are thought to trigger and prolong rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. However, that theory is controversial and is still being studied." Web MD. "Types of Bipolar Disorder: 1, 2, Mixed, Cyclothymic, and More." Types of Bipolar Disorder (2012): n. pag. WebMD. WebMD, 29 June 2012. Web. 11 July 2013.
Contributed by Lloyd Byram
There are more people than one can image who suffers from mental illness. One of the most diagnosed mental illnesses is Bipolar disorder. I think this is an important topic that people need to address, and the more we know about this disease, the sooner we can identify the symptoms and seek treatment for it.
Contributed by Antwon German