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Augustus

Augustus (Latin: Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus:


  1. IPA: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ɔkˈtaː.wi.ʊs]

  2. IPA: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar ɔk.taː.wiˈaː.nʊs]

  3. IPA: [ɪm.pɛˈraː.tɔr ˈkae̯.sar ˈdiː.wiː ˈfiː.li.ʊs au̯ˈgʊs.tʊs]
The spelling , indicating the pronunciation [aˈgʊs.tʊs], occurs in inscriptions . 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus (Anglicized as Octavian). He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.

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In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Augustus (there called Octavius) is a minor character and a member of the Second Triumvirate. In Anthony and Cleopatra, however, Octavius takes a main role as a dry, persuasive, and utterly self-controlled diplomat intent on gaining power in Rome and eliminating his rivals. In the made-for-TV movie Imperium: Augustus, Peter O'Toole portrays the emperor on his death bed as he recounts the events of his life. The movie portrays Augustus as an old man riddled with doubt and guilt over the methods by which he attained the Empire, seeking to be justified (or at least forgiven) in the eyes of his daughter. In Colleen McCullough's First Man in Rome series, Augustus is set forward as an enigma, both among his peers and among his enemies. The series - which chronicles the rise of Julius Caesar and his subsequent assassination - introduces Augustus (then, Octavius) as an asthmatic youth of above-average intelligence and political insight, and follows his career as he becomes contubernalis to Caesar and, later, Caesar's heir. He is the main character in the second half of October Horse, where he enters Rome's political arena following the death of Caesar and maneuvers himself into the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, culminating in their joint victory over Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. The final book in the series, Anthony and Cleopatra, follows Octavian's machinations against Antony and his final victory over all his political enemies, which leads to him being declared Augustus by the Senate.

Contributed by Aidan Netherwyrm Clevinger

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