is a brain disorder
characterized by engagement in rewarding
stimuli despite adverse consequences. Despite the involvement of a number of psychosocial factors, a biological process – one which is induced by repeated exposure to an addictive stimulus – is the core pathology
that drives the development and maintenance of an addiction. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing
(i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding
(i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable, and pleasurable).