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Michele Anderson

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The class textbook describes how, “(a) leadership is an interaction between the leader, the followers, and the situation; (b) leadership develops through experience; and (c) leadership can be assessed and studied” (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009, p. 18). It talks about how a person with a lot of knowledge and research on leadership can be a poor leader. The text says, “Knowing what to do is not the same as knowing when, where, and how to do it” (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009, p. 18). Thinking about leadership as a process will enhance your business skills and help you become a better leader. American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton. Hughes, R. L., & Ginnett, R. C. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 6th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Posted in September 11 attacks

Jimmy Dunne’s leadership style was very different from Howard Lutnick who also had to rebuild his business after the attacks on September 11, 2001 (Gordon, 2012). Jimmy Dunne was faced with the loss of 66 of the 83 employees at his firm. He and the others left successfully worked together to rebuild their firm by utilizing relationships with other businesses they had built over the years, they continued to pay the deceased families a salary and benefits, they went to counseling and got grief counseling for the deceased families, they hired and trained new employees, and they found a new building for their business that was safe. This is a good example from the text where it describes leadership as something in which everyone shares the responsibility. According to an article in New York magazine entitled “Howard Lutnick’s Second Life”, Howard cried after the attacks on the World Trade Center and promised to take care of the families who had loved ones who died at work (Gordon, 2012). Howard Lutnick’s investment firm had also been in the World Trade center like Jimmy Dunne’s. Both men were faced with the same challenges after the attacks, but Jimmy actually acted like how the text describes a leader should act. Jimmy did not merely do things right but he did the right things to regrow his business and take care of the families who had deceased loved ones. Howard Lutnick seems to really struggle with knowing the right things to do as a leader. A few days after the attacks Howard stopped the payroll of the 657 deceased employees of Cantor Fitzgerald. He said, “I needed my bankers to know that I was in control. That I wasn’t sentimental and that I was no less motivated or driven to make my business survive” (Gordon, 2012). Many of Howard Lutnick’s former brokers are very bitter toward him. One person in the article who would not allow his name to be printed said, “The concerns of those families at the end of the day that he’d do the right thing are well-founded. He’s a very tough guy, sharp elbows, takes no prisoners” (Gordon, 2012). He went on to say, “You can’t use my name, because I’m afraid he’ll go after me – that’s how much I trust Howard” (Gordon, 2012). Then he went on to describe how Howard reassured bond brokers that their jobs were secure while developing the company but then fired almost all 300 of them after their internet trading system was in place. Bibliography American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton. Gordon, M. (2012, September ). Howard Lutnick's Second Life. New York Magazine.

Posted in September 11 attacks

Leadership can be developed through both experience and formal education. The class textbook describes a model that provides a framework for understanding leadership called the action-observation-reflection model (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009). Application of leadership understanding and awareness of role perception is very important to leadership development as it enhances a leader’s ability to reflect and analyze leadership situations. An effective tool for developing leaders is described in the text as a leadership talent management system which defines the organization’s strategy, goals, and products and services and then identifies the critical leadership positions important to the success of the organization, develops a competency model, and then finally adopts techniques which identify and measure leadership performance (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009). Another example of a leader who developed their leadership ability as a process through experience and education is Dexter Yager. Dexter Yager has been working as an independent business owner in conjunction with the Amway Corporation for over 48 years now. His business sells over two billion dollars’ worth of products every year, and he is a multi-millionaire. He wrote a book about leadership along with with his son Steve Yager and his friend John Mason entitled The Pursuit Success is Hidden in the Journey (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005). He is the most highly successful individual in his industry in history. He has extraordinary leadership skills and inspires others to grow their own successful business. Dexter says, “Success is a habit. Men and women who succeed create habits, and then the habits create the men and women. Anybody that’s highly successful is automatically a creature of pre-decided habits (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 161).” He goes on to explain how important it is to control your thoughts and not let negativity rule your thinking. The class textbook also highlights that point as well. Dexter goes on to explain, “It’s not the size of your income or the size of your town that is the difference; it’s the size of your thinking (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 52).” He talks about how important it is to dream. Dexter says, “One of the best things I can do is take you into a realm you cannot afford, let you look at it, touch it, and then take it away (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 50).” He demonstrates the importance of setting goals in order to achieve results. He says, “You set your goals and then work like it’s impossible to fail (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 42).” He points out that you first have to create a few major goals in order to clarify direction. He says, “I’ve always been a flexible person, but I have a certain rule. I major on the majors, and I minor on the minors (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 93).” Dexter goes on to model the way by pointing out, “I decided years ago it was important I show up. Ninety percent of success is showing up and starting. You may be disappointed if you fail, but you are doomed if you don’t try (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 99).” Dexter greatly encourages the hearts of others. He explains, “The most successful people have overcome the most (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 56).” He tells people that they need to look toward the future and stop wearing themselves out by looking at the present and the past. Dexter says, “Close the door on your past and get a dream and a vision for the future (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 45).” Dexter points out that Proverbs in the Bible says, “Where there is no vision the people perish (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 45).” He says, “It’s not the absence of things that makes you unhappy, but the absence of vision (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 19).” Dexter goes on to say, “Success is being in the pursuit of excellence. Don’t just seek success and pursue happiness. Instead, seek excellence and you will find both (Yager, Mason, & Yager, 2005, p. 157).” The book entitled The Five Temptations of A CEO by Patrick Lencioni is a very enlightening tale of a CEO learning leadership as a process who makes five mistakes that he has to overcome in order to turn his failing company around. The book points out leaders should, “Focus on results more than status, accountability more than popularity, clarity more than certainty, productive conflict more than harmony, and trust more than invulnerability (Lencioni, 1998, p. 118).” It also explains that, “Instilling trust gives executives the confidence to have productive conflict. Fostering conflict gives executives the confidence to create clarity. Clarity gives executives the confidence to hold people accountable. Accountability gives executives confidence in expected results. Results are an ultimate measure of long-term success (Lencioni, 1998, p. 118).” Bibliography American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton. Hughes, R. L., & Ginnett, R. C. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 6th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Lencioni, P. (1998). The Five Temptations of a CEO. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. Yager, D., Mason, J., & Yager, S. (2005). The Pursuit Success is Hidden in the Journey. Fort Mill, SC: InterNET Services Corporation.

Posted in September 11 attacks

Leaders have a big responsibility during disasters. Leaders have a responsibility to their business, employees, stockholders, customers and the community. Leaders should prepare for disasters by having contingency plans in place before a disaster happens by using standard operating procedures (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009). The U.S. Chamber of Commerce Business Civic Leadership Center (BCLC) has published an article that outlines some of the responsibilities of leadership during a disaster (Jordan & Gerald, 2012). “What we are finding is that companies are helping communities manage disasters simply by doing business. In many cases, protecting their business operations in order to get back up and running quickly after a disaster is the best thing a business can do for its community” (Jordan & Gerald, 2012). The BCLC reports that insurance companies have played a key role in educating businesses in disaster mitigation preparedness as it is in their best interest to do so. It reports that businesses such as FedEx and UPS use cutting edge logistics in order to manage disruptions during extreme disaster events. “Craig Fugate, director of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), has talked about this incredible restorative function of businesses. In fact, he frequently cites a story about how FEMA was spending a lot of money to ship in ice to a community, only to learn that the local grocery store was already up and running and had ice on hand. As he reasoned, the more business could take care of everyday needs, the more FEMA could devote its resources to more critical situations. In short, ordinary functioning of business was an extraordinary help to the disaster response process” (Jordan & Gerald, 2012). Bibliography Hughes, R. L., & Ginnett, R. C. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 6th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Jordan, S., & Gerald, M. (2012). The Role of Business in Disaster Response. U.S. Chambre of Commerce. Retrieved 2012, from bclc.uschamber.com of Business in Disaster Response.pdf American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton.

Posted in September 11 attacks

The class text book discusses some common myths of leadership (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009). The myths include ideas like good leadership is all common sense, leaders are born and not made, and the only school for leadership is the school of hard knocks. A person needs more than just common sense to be a good leader because a reasonable person with some life experience does not necessarily have the same common practical knowledge as others. The text describes hind sight of outcomes as “20/20” and points out that conclusions of studies may seem reasonable only after they are announced but not always apparent before the study. It also says that leaders should act confidently but, “they also need to be humble enough to recognize that others’ views are useful, too” (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009, p. 16). Some people believe that a leader is born with the ability to lead but the text says leadership is a process that can be learned with training and experience. It is true that a person can be born with some natural talents and there can be a genetic piece to intelligence, but those things do not make the person a leader. Also different environments can either nurture or hinder a person from becoming an effective leader. The book also says, “Some people skeptically question whether leadership can develop through formal study, believing instead it can only be acquired thorough actual experience. It is a mistake, however, to think of formal study and learning from experience as mutually exclusive or antagonistic. In fact, they compliment each other” (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009, p. 17). That is why you can learn leadership from training and also experience. Bibliography American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton. Hughes, R. L., & Ginnett, R. C. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 6th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Posted in September 11 attacks

Jimmy Dunne is a fine example of learning leadership as a process in an article written by Katrina Brooker entitled “Starting Over” (Brooker, Katrina, 2002). In the article Jimmy Dunne III started an investment firm with some colleagues in the World Trade Center. When the attacks happened on September 11, 2001, 66 of the 83 employees at the firm died (Brooker, Katrina, 2002). Jimmy Dunne and the other 17 employees who were left were faced with the daunting task of keeping the firm profitable enough to stay open, taking care of the families who had loved ones who died at work, grief counseling for themselves and the families of the deceased, hiring and training new employees, and finding a new place to do business. The class text book entitled Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 6th edition describes leadership as, “the process of influencing others toward achieving group goals” (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009, p. 19). Chapter one describes leadership as both a science and an art because it is studied like a science and practiced like an art. Leadership is also described as both rational and emotional in the text. “Good leadership also involves touching others’ feelings; emotions play an important role in leadership too. Just one example of this is the civil rights movement of the 1960s. It was a movement based on emotions as well as principles. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., inspired many people to action; he touched people’s hearts as well as their heads” (Hughes & Ginnett, 2009, p. 7). The text also points out that leadership and management are two different things. It describes a leader as someone who does the right things while a manager merely does things right. The text also illustrates how important followership is to leadership. Followership greatly enhances the leader’s ability to be effective. Bibliography American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton. Brooker, Katrina. (2002, January 21). Starting Over. Fortune Magazine. Hughes, R. L., & Ginnett, R. C. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 6th edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Posted in September 11 attacks

The class textbook identifies PRIZM as a geodemographic system created by Claritas, Inc., that categorizes consumers into clusters based on their neighborhood (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 70). I went to the PRIZM website and found out that in my neighborhood a large portion of the consumers are categorized as upscale middle aged people without children. There are around forty one thousand people in my neighborhood, the median age is thirty seven, the median income is seventy one thousand, and the consumer spend is almost fifty eight thousand dollars each year. I was surprised to find I fit perfectly within this marketing category, and I learned how I am being targeted. It will greatly help me from now on when I think about my budget and how I spend. Peter, P. J., & Donnelley, J. H. (2006). A Preface to Marketing Management. New York, Ny: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Posted in Marketing

According to the class text VALS is a marketing psychographic segmentation tool (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). Psychographic segmentation is useful to marketing managers because it focuses on the lifestyles of consumers (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). VALS actually stands for “values and lifestyles” (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). It is a survey consumers take that measures them by asking about activities such as business, work and hobbies along with their interests such as job or family, and it asks questions about their opinions about business, social issues or politics (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). The class text says the questions can be very general for psychographic segmentation studies or they can sometimes relate to products (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). The VALS survey was created during the 1970s, and has been revised many times since in order to enhance the accuracy of the results when predicting consumer behaviors and lifestyles (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). According to the class text the research for VALS in regards to segmentation is a product of SRI consulting Business Intelligence (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). The psychographic groups are broken up into eight segments that are arranged into a rectangle that has two dimensions (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 69). The vertical dimension divides people into groups based on how innovative they are and the horizontal dimension divides people into groups according to their motivations (Peter & Donnelley, 2006, p. 70). I took the VALS survey while researching this topic (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). The classification results I received at the end said my primary VALS type was “Innovator” and the secondary type was “Experiencer” (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). The results of my survey are shown in a screen shot from the website below (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). I think the VALS survey results were very interesting, and they also go along with some personality tests I have taken in the past. FedEx sends us to a training class called Building Relationship Versatility: Social Styles at Work which is facilitated by Wilson Learning. Before we take the class we have to pick five people who have known us and worked with us for years to fill out a survey about our personality traits. We get the results in the class and learn about ourselves and how to deal with others. The results of that survey which was taken by my peers were that I am an “Expressive, Expressive Innovator” (Wilson Learning Worldwide Inc., 2006). I dug a little deeper on the Strategic Business Insights page to learn more about what they think the characteristics of an innovator and experiencer would be. It says innovators are “change leaders and most receptive to new ideas and technologies” (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). It goes on to say innovators typically purchase “niche” services and products and that we are highly active as consumers (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). I agree with this assessment. I do enjoy shopping and I do typically buy what they would call “niche” services and products. For example, my favorite clothing store is called Anthropology. It has clothes and household items I adore. The site also explains in more detail what an “Experiencer” would categorically do (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). It describes an “Experiencer” as a youthful person who can be quite impulsive as a consumer (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). It also mentions that these people will also very quickly decide they do not want to buy (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). It says these people like to spend a large percentage of their income on socializing, fashion and entertainment (Strategic Business Insights, 2013). I agree with this assessment as well. I do spend a lot of my money on socializing with friends and my family. I like invite family and friends over for dinner, take them to lunch, and go on trips with them. Bibliography Strategic Business Insights. (2013, April 3). Retrieved April 3, 2013, from Strategic Business Insights: www.strategicbusinessinsights.com American Pshchological Association. (2005). Concise Rules of APA Style. Washington, DC: American Psychological Associaton. Peter, P. J., & Donnelley, J. H. (2006). A Preface to Marketing Management. New York, Ny: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Wilson Learning Worldwide Inc. (2006). Social Style Profile. Feedback Booklet.

Posted in Marketing

Commercial space travel and tourism has great potential for viability and success. When Space Adventures did a survey from respondents to see how much people would be willing to pay for a trip to outer space they found out people would be willing to pay up to thirty percent of their annual gross income (Ellis, 2013). Another survey found people were willing to pay between fifteen and twenty thousand dollars for a space trip (Ellis, 2013). Private companies are racing to come up with new technology and ways to make space travel less expensive so average people can go to space. As this new industry takes off, prices will come down making it possible for more people to take part in space travel (Commercial Space Travel: The final Frontier, 2012). Companies like Virgin Galactic are offering space flights (Commercial Space Travel: The final Frontier, 2012). Other companies like Space Island Group plans to make living in space a reality for businesses (Commercial Space Travel: The final Frontier, 2012). Space Island is working to use solar energy to power their infrastructure for twenty thousand people by 2020 (Commercial Space Travel: The final Frontier, 2012). Commercial space travel and tourism will take several years and will be very expensive. It will be very challenging and will require a lot of new technology. This will be good for humanity and world economic growth as long as we can work together and keep it safe for humans and our environment. Ellis, L. (2013). What it Costs For a Trip Into Space. Retrieved April 25, 2013, from What It Costs Everything Costs Something: travel.whatitcosts.com Commercial Space Travel: The final Frontier. (2012, August 12). Retrieved April 25, 2013, from Commercial Space Travel News: commercialspacetravel.org

Posted in Space exploration

Prices associated with commercial space travel and tourism have been very high so far. Only a handful of very rich people in the private sector have been to outer space. Several hundred people have now been up to eight hundred thousand feet which is at the edge of Earth’s atmosphere (Ellis, 2013). When people get to that height they are able to see the Earth’s curve, and they can see where the “darkness of space” starts (Ellis, 2013). Private companies are racing to start space flights and build hotels and resorts in outer space to grow commercial travel and tourism (Ellis, 2013). A company called Space Adventures is a space travel agency that makes space flight arrangements (Ellis, 2013). The company has also created some neat opportunities for people to start to experience space such as taking private tourists to “the outer limits”, offering zero-gravity flights, and creating “high-altitude experiences” for thrill seekers (Ellis, 2013). The cost is around twelve thousand dollars for this trip (Ellis, 2013). A trip in a cargo plane that can simulate weightlessness costs around five thousand dollars (Ellis, 2013). They even offer a suborbital flight to customers allowing them to have a weightless experience sixty two miles up (Ellis, 2013). Other companies like Virgin Galactic and EADS also plan to start offering customers suborbital flights (Ellis, 2013). These companies are offering necessary training and flights to customers for a price of one hundred to two hundred thousand dollars (Ellis, 2013). Companies are also offering six month cosmonaut training and survival classes to prepare customers to travel to the International Space Station (Ellis, 2013). Space Adventures is offering this opportunity (Ellis, 2013). The price is between twenty and thirty million dollars and the customer will get to stay at the International Space Station for one or two weeks (Ellis, 2013). Space Adventures is also planning a trip for the elite in the private sector to go to the Moon (Ellis, 2013). This is not available yet but they are planning the details (Ellis, 2013). The price for this trip is estimated between one hundred and two hundred million dollars (Ellis, 2013) Ellis, L. (2013). What it Costs For a Trip Into Space. Retrieved April 25, 2013, from What It Costs Everything Costs Something: travel.whatitcosts.com

Posted in Space exploration